Effective Java 4 - Generics

23. Don't use raw types in new code

Raw type generics is the type without the parameterized type. For example, List is the raw type of List<E>.

Example: bad

private final Collection stamps = ...;

stamps.add(new Coin());

for (Iterator i = stamps.iterator(); i.hasNext(); ) {
    Stamp s = (Stamp) i.next();

Replace the first line with:

private final Collection<Stamp> stamps = ...;

Using raw type will lose the security advantage of generics. Then why Java allow raw types? For historical reasons.

Difference between List and List<Object>

List, code likes this is avoiding type checking.

If List lst, List<Object> lst1, List<String> lst2, then lst = lst2 is valid, but lst1 = lst2 is invalid. List<String> is a subclass of List, but is not a subclass of List<Object>.

public static void main(String[] args)
    List< String > strings = new ArrayList< String >();
    unsafeAdd(strings, new Integer(42));
    String s = strings.get(0);

private static void unsafeAdd(List list, Object o) {

Program will receive a warning at list.add(o). I know you want to allow the element to be any type. You can use List<?> instead of List in unsafeAdd.

Difference between List and List<?>

?, the unbounded wildcard type, is a safe type. null cannot be put into Collection<?>.

Two exceptions: When to use raw type in new code

Generics information will be erase at runtime. It only takes effect at compile time.

  1. In class literal(like List.class), we must use raw type. List<String>.class and List<?>.class are invalid.
  2. instanceof List<String> is invalid.

Code below is a way to use instanceof when using generics

if (o instanceof Set) {
    Set<?> m = ( Set<?> ) o;

Some types

Bounded type parameter: <E extends Number>

Recursive type bound: <T extends Comparable<T>>

Bounded wildcard type: List<? extends Number>

Generic method: static <E> List<E> asList(E[] a)

24. Eliminate unchecked warnings

Eliminate every unchecked warnings that you can.

If the warning cannot be eliminated, and you can prove the code is safe, then you can use a @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") annotation to eliminate the warning.


public < T > T[] toArray(T[] a) {
    if (a.length < size) {
        // This cast is correct because the array we're creating
        // is of the same type as the one passed in, which is T[].
        T[] result = (T[]) Arrays.copyOf(elements, size, a.getClass());
        return result;
    System.arraycopy(elements, 0, a, 0, size);
    if (a.length > size)
        a.[size] = null;
    return a;

When using @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") annotation, you must comment why it is correct and safe.

25. Prefer List to Array

Array is covariant, which means if Sub is a subclass of Super, then Sub[] is a subclass of Super[].

List is invariant.

/* This compiles */
Object[] objectArray = new Long[1];
objectArray[0] = "I don't fit in"; // Throws ArrayStoreException

/* This will not compile */
List<Object> ol = new ArrayList<Long>(); // compilation error
ol.add("I don't fit in");

This actually means, array has fault, not generics.

Another difference between array and generics is, array does type checking during runtime, while generics does that during compilation. Array throws exception if error occurs.

Generics does type checking while compilation, and then use erasure to erase the parameterized type information in runtime. After erasure, generics can be used with unbounded generics.

Creating an array of a generic type, a parameterized type or a type parameter are illegal, because the type of array is not typesafe

This code is illegal

List<String>[] stringLists = new List<String>[1]; // This one won't compile
List<Integer> intList = Arrays.asList(42);
Object[] object = stringLists;
objects[0] = intList;
String s = stringList[0].get(0);

If 1st line is correct, then 3rd line, it is correct, because at runtime, stringList is just List after erasure. Then 4th line, it is equivalent to the first element of List is a List(after erasure, but actually it is List<Integer>. 4th line is legal. But 5th line is illegal, we cannot get s, since it is a Integer 42.

Things like E, List<E>, List<String> is non-reifiable type, which is a type that at runtime the information in the memory representation is little than compilation time. List<?> is legal.

Solution is prefer List<E> instead of E[]. Less performance and simplexity, more secure and flexibility.

static <E> E reduce(List<E> list, Function<E> f, E initVal) {
    E[] snapshot = (E[]) list.toArray(); // Locks list
    E result = initVal;
    for (E e : snapshot)
        result = f.apply(result, e);
    return result;

It has a warning [unchecked] unchecked cast. toArray() returns a Object[], casting to E[] is dangerous.

Solution is:

static <E> E reduce(List<E> list, Function<E> f, E initVal) {
    List<E> snapshot;
    synchronized(list) {
        snapshot = new ArrayList<E>(list);

    E result = initVal;
    for (E e : snapshot)
        result = f.apply(result, e);
    return result;

26. Favor generic types

We are programming a Stack class, public class Stack<E>.

You may want to store the element in an array like private E[] elements inside the class. In the constructor, when you initialize elements, you will get a warning or error on elements = new E[DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY]. Because you cannot create a non-reifiable type array.

There are two ways to solve this.

Solution 1

Initialize elements = (E[]) new Object[DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY]. You will get another warning says unchecked cast. The compiler cannot guarantee the casting is correct. You can use a @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") to avoid the warning.

Solution 2

Change the type of elements to Object[] elements. Then you may get error when you do stack operations like on E result = elements[--size] you will get incompatible types. If you change it to E result = (E) elements[--size], you will get a warning unchecked cast. Since E is a non-reifiable type, the compiler cannot to type checking when casting. Still you can use @SuppressWarnings("unchecked").


Both solutions are ok. The difference is that first solution will annotate a whole array as @SuppressWarnings, which is more dangerous than the second solution. Thus the second one is better. But the second solution may require a lot of type casting to E,. That's why the first solution is more common in use.

Final code(using solution 1):

// ... explain why you can suppress the warnings
public class Stack {
    private Object[] elements;
    private int size = 0;
    private static final int DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY = 16;

    public Stack () {
        elements = new Object[DEFAULT_INIT_CAPACITY];

    public void push(Object e) {
        elements[size++] = e;

    public Object pop() {
        if (size == 0)
            throw new EmptyStackException();
        Object result = elements[--size];
        elements[size] = null;
        return result;

    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return size == 0;

    private void ensureCapacity() {
        if (elements.length == size)
            elements= Arrays.copyOf(elements, 2*size+1);

27. Favor generic method

Example of generic method

public static <E> Set<E> union(Set<E> s1, Set<E> s2) {
    Set<E> result = new HashSet<E>(s1);
    return result;

You can use bounded wildcard type to make it more flexible.

Generic has a mechanism called type inference. It will know what is the generic type you want to use.

There is a redundant in declaration of a generic object. Map<String, List<String>> anagrams = new HashMap<String, List<String>>(), the left side and right side both need the full type parameters. We can have a generic static factory method to do it.

public static <K, V> HashMap<K, V> newHashMap() {
    return new HashMap<K, V>

// calling the method

Map<String, List<String>> anagrams = newHashMap(); // The type is inferenced from the return type

Example: generic singleton factory

If the object we generate from the generic static factory is a singleton, since generics use erasure mechanism, we may need to create many different types of singletons.

Suppose we have an interface

public interface UnaryFunction<T> {
    T apply(T arg);

Now we need an identity function, implement this UnaryFunction, we may need create a new one every time we use it for a new type.

The whole program:

public interface UnaryFunction<T> {
    T apply(T arg);

public class Main
    // Generic singleton factory pattern
    private static UnaryFunction<Object> IDENTITY_FUNCTION =
        new UnaryFunction<Object>() {
            public Object apply(Object arg) { return arg; }

    // IDENTITY_FUNCTION is stateless and its type parameter is
    // unbounded so it's safe to share one instance across all types
    public static <T> UnaryFunction<T> identityFunction() {
        return (UnaryFunction<T>) IDENTITY_FUNCTION;

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String[] strings = { "jute", "hemp", "nylon" };
        UnaryFunction<String> sameString = identityFunction();
        for (String s : strings)

        Number[] numbers = { 1, 2.0, 3L };
        UnaryFunction<Number> sameNumber = identityFunction();
        for (Number n : numbers)

This one will have an warning, since not all the IDENTITY_FUNCTION can be casted to UnaryFunction<T>. But we know it is safe here.

Example: recursive type bound

How to express the constraint that in a list, every element is able to compare with another element in the list. For example, to get the maximum element from this type of list:

public static <T extends Comparable<T>> T max(List<T> list) {
    Iterator<T> i = list.iterator();
    T result = i.next();
    while (i.hasNext()) {
        T t = i.next();
        if (t.compareTo(result) > 0)
            result = t;
    return result;

By doing so we ensure that type T is able to compare with the same type object.

28. Use bounded wildcards to increase API flexibility

We have a piece of code:

Stack<Number> numberstack = new Stack<Number>();
Iterable<Integer> integers = ... ;

You cannot push integers into numberStack because the types are not match.

After using bounded wildcard:

public void pushAll(Iterable< ? extends E> src) {
    for (E e : src)

If you also want a popAll:

public void popAll(Collection< ? super E> dst)
    while (!isEmpty())


Pay attention to Collection< ? super E>.

For maximum flexibility, use wildcard types on input parameters that represent producers or consumers.

PECS: producer-extends, consumer-super. producer provides things, will not change itself. consumer use things, will change itself. So in previous example,, dst use the object from stack, it is a consumer.


Apply PECS to the stack example in section 27:

public static <E> Set<E> union(Set< ? extends E > s1, Set< ? extends E > s2) { .. }

Set<Integer> integers = ...;
Set<Double> doubles = ...;
Set<Number> numbers = union(integers, doubles);

Notice that the return type of union is Set<E>.

Unfortunately, You will get an error: incompatible types. Because compiler cannot inference your type E.

The Solution is explicit type parameter. If the compiler cannot infer the correct type, we can try this.

Set<Number> numbers = Union.<Number>union(integers, doubles);

More examples: recursive type bound

Let's look back at the max() int section 27. Apply PECS to that. Previous method is:

public static <T extends Comparable< T > > T max(List< T > list)

Now become:

public static <T extends Comparable< ? super T > > T max(List< ? extends T > list) {
    Iterator<T> i = list.iterator();
    T result = i.next();
    while( i.hasNext()) {
        T t = i.next();
        if (t.compareTo(result) > 0)
            result = t;
    return result;

But it has a compilation error. It says list is not a List<T>. We need to replace the iterator with Iterator< ? extends T > i= list.iterator().

29. Consider typesafe heterogeneous containers

In Java 1.5, Class type becomes Class<T>. String.class returns a value of type Class<String>.

We have a Favorites class, to store one single favorite object for each type of things.

public class Favorites {
    private Map< Class< ? >, Object> favorites = new HashMap< Class< ? >, Object>();

    public <T> void putFavorite(Class<T> type, T instance) {
        if (type == null)
            throw new NullPointerException("Type is null");
        favorites.put(type, instance);
    public <T> T getFavorite(Class<T> type) {
        return type.cast(favorites.get(type));

public static void main(String[] args) {
    Favorites f = new Favorites();
    f.putFavorite(String.class, "Java");
    f.putFavorite(Integer.class, 0xcafebabe);
    f.putFavorite(Class.class, Favorite.class);

    String favoriteString = f.getFavorite(String.class);

    System.out.println("%s\n", favoriteString);

We will get Java.

Notice that Map< Class< ? >, Object> can have any type of key.The value is Object, which means it does not guarantee the correct relationship between key and value.

To solve the problem, we can change favorites.put(type, instance) to favorites.put(type, type.cast(instance)).

Another problem of Favorite is, we cannot call something like pushFavorite(List<String>.class, lst), because List<String> is non-reifiable. Currently it does not have a satisfying solution.